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圈养和遛马-怎样更有益于马的健康

2016-3-10 14:38| 发布者: 木辛| 查看: 105| 评论: 0|原作者: 水中月|来自: 凯瑟琳 · 戴维斯

摘要: Stall Living or Turn-Out Living – Which One is the Best Life for Your Horse 圈养和遛马——怎样更有益于马的健康 WHY “My horse stays nice and clean in his stall, and his coat looks great. He doesn’ ...
Stall Living or Turn-Out Living – Which One is the Best Life for Your Horse 圈养和遛马——怎样更有益于马的健康

WHY
“My horse stays nice and clean in his stall, and his coat looks great. He doesn’t get chewed-up by other horses, I never have to walk out in the rain or snow to bring him in, and his shoes stay on most of the time. I could turn my horse out, but why should I?”
“我的马生活在漂亮干净的马厩中,它的毛发看起来非常漂亮,它不会被别的马咬伤,它不用遭受风雨雪的洗刷,它一直都钉有马蹄铁。即便我有足够的场地遛马,但,为什么我非遛马不可呢?”

Dr.K
This is a common reply when I ask horse owners in China why their horses live in a stall all day, every day, week after week, month after month and year after year. It is so boring and unhealthy for the horses mind and body!
通常当我问道中国马主为什么他们的马被圈养没有任何被遛马的机会时,这是我听到的最普遍的回复。马日复一日,周复一周,月复一月,年复一年的禁锢在马厩中??这样的生活不但无趣,对马的身心也非常的不健康。

Many horses live indoors except for a few hours of exercise each week, and most have adapted well to this life. However, it can’t be said that such a lifestyle is natural. Most large farm animals—cows, sheep, goats, pigs—are outside a most of the time. Horses are the only large species commonly managed as indoor animals. Horses have become “companion animals” just like cats and dogs except that they do not share our space at home. We put them in an equestrian center and create a little square apartment for them.
很多生活在马厩中的马每周只能得到那么几个小时的“放风”时间,虽然它们中的大部分能适应这样的生活,但这并不意味着这种方式能被称之为“自然”。大部分大型牲畜型动物,牛,绵阳,山羊,猪,都更适应户外生活。马是唯一一种大型的能适应圈养生活的动物。马和猫,狗一样,逐渐成为宠物型动物,不过它们的体型大了“一点”,未必能适应我们屋内的空间。于是乎,我们 将它们放进我们精心打造的,四四方方的“公寓”里。

Most arguments for keeping a horse in his stall can be placed in the “easier for the owner” category. Few, if any, fall into the “better for the horse” category. Horses are nomads. In the natural environment they roam over 8 to 26 kilometers per day. They graze little and often for 16 to 20 hours per day eating low-quality, high fibre feeds, namely grass. There is nothing natural about living in a little box-like apartment.
把马放在马厩中最常见的理由是“方便马主”。然而,几乎没有人想过要“如何为马创造更好的环境”。马是适应游牧环境的动物,在自然环境中,它们每天会“散步”8-26km,在这期间时不时的吃点低脂高纤维的草,时间加起来有16-20个小时。圈养——让马生活在一个小盒子里,根本称不上健康自然。

马是适应游牧环境的动物,在自然环境中,它们每天会“散步”8-26km,他们每天时不时的吃点低脂高纤维的草,时间加起来有16-20个小时。圈养-让马生活在小盒子里,根本称不上健康自然。
那么,让我们来看看遛马能给马带来的好处,需要注意的危险事宜,以及如何尽量避免危险。

肌肉骨骼系统 Musculoskeletal system.
It’s natural for horses to move as they graze and interact with their fellow herd members. They can cover a surprising distance during a day of moving from one choice patch of grass to another, even without the occasional top-speed, watch-me-buck run around the paddock. For young horses, research shows that free exercise contributes to the development of a strong skeleton. For older horses, the constant movement encouraged by turnout helps to prevent the stiffness and oedema in the lower leg that are common when horses stand in their stalls for long periods.
对习惯跟着同伴们一起走走停停吃吃早的马来说,运动是再自然不过的事情了。它们每天从一片草地,走到另一片草地,散步能走的路程之远,即使不算上它们全速奔跑,受惊而狂奔的里程,即便只是悠闲漫步,起里程也能让你大吃一惊的。 研究显示,能自由自在运动的年轻的马能有更强壮的骨骼。对年老的马来说,持续的运动,遛马能帮助它们帮它们强健骨骼, 减少浮肿,而骨质疏松,浮肿正是长期生活在马厩中的马最常遇到的问题。

马群的社交和压力 Socialization and stress
Horses are highly social animals, and many horses find it hard to relax if they can’t be with, or at least see, one or more other horses. Some horses are reluctant to lie down in a stall; maybe they feel they cannot watch out for predators, or possibly they feel the space is too cramped.
马是高度社会化的动物,很多马在不能看到至少一匹马,或不能和马群同伴在一起时,它们会变的很难放松。有的马不愿意在马厩中躺下,这或许因为马厩中它们看不到周围的环节,不能及时发现可能出现捕食者,也可能是它们感觉马厩中空间太狭小。

They are prey animals ( i.e. in ancient times they were food for other animals) and their instincts are still very strong. If they are frightened the first reaction is to run away, then stop and look to see if they should keep running or go back to grazing happily with their friends. In a stall they cannot run away and will experience a level of stress as their natural defense mechanism is removed. In addition, they may do the opposite of “flight” and if they are frightened react aggressively and “fight”.
马是食物链中的猎物(例如,在远古时期,它们是它们就是许多动物捕食的目标),它们的本能反应非常强。如果它们受到惊吓,那么它们做出的第一个反应就是逃跑,跑到一定距离后才停下来观察,看是接着跑呢,还是回去继续和同伴快乐的吃草。然而在马厩中,它们却无处可跑,在它们天然的防御机制被阻断时,马会产生一定程度的精神压力。此外,当它们的逃跑反应被激发时,它们可能做出与逃跑相反的行为—变得具有攻击性,开启“战斗”反应。

Youngsters turned out in a group learn good manners and social order from the older horses. The respect taught by senior horses will make your trainer’s job easier because the young horse will already have learned that submission to authority is sometimes required. It will also make the horse safer in an environment where many horses are interacting with humans.
年轻的马同马群一起被遛时,能跟着马群年纪大的马学习好的行为习惯,马群次序。从“马前辈”那学到的“尊重上级”的能让马匹训练师的工作更容易,因为调教需要它们学会要“尊重,恭顺于权威”。这也能帮助马适应人马互动的环境。

日粮和消化系统 Diet and digestive function.
A horse’s stomach produces gastric acid constantly. Large amounts of saliva buffer this acid, but saliva is produced only when the horse is chewing and swallowing. In the natural world horses eat a few bites in one place then walk a few paces and eat a few more bites of grass. This can go on for 18 hours every day which creates a functional normal digestive tract.
马的胃不断分泌胃酸,大量的碱性唾液才能中和胃酸,然而,唾液只有在马匹咀嚼和吞咽时才产生。在自然环境中,马在一片草地上吃一会草,走动一会到另一片草地吃草,这样的时间加起来每天有18个小时,这构成了其消化系统的正常运转机制。

In contrast, after finishing their hay, stalled horses may spend hours before another flake is supplied, and unbuffered acid can quickly lead to the gastric ulcers that plague many barn dwellers. Grazing keeps a near-constant supply of roughage moving through the stomach, preventing ulceration and providing fiber that is essential to intestinal function. Horses with ulcers will be difficult to keep in good condition, may get colic frequently, refuse to eat their food, have a poor quality hair coat, be difficult to girth up tightly and not perform as well as they should. In short, they are in constant pain.
与之相反,马厩中的马吃完草料后,要几个小时后才后有下一次进食。没有被中和的胃酸会迅速导致胃溃疡。Grazing(时不时的吃草)让唾液和粗纤维能不断的通过胃部,预防胃溃疡,同时为肠道功能提供必不可少的纤维。患好胃溃疡的马很难保持好的体况(关于体况,请看前期关于体况指数的文章),可能会时常患腹绞痛,拒绝进食,毛发质量不好,运动表现也达不到它们应该达到的水平。简言之,它们处于持续不断的病痛中。

受伤与表现 Injuries and appearance.
Turned out one at a time, horses tend to get a few scratches and scrapes. Turned out with a few horse friends, they may suffer some kicks and bites. Most are not serious, but if it’s important to have your horse’s coat looking perfect, turning out must be managed well. Lots of exposure to the sun results in some bleaching and dulling of the horse’s coat, a consequence that can be avoided by turning out only at night. This is usually impractical in an equestrian club with many horses and a feeding programme that relies on horses being in the stalls each evening for the evening feeding routine.
遛马时每次遛一匹马。马喜欢相互挠痒。同时遛几匹马,它们可能会相互踢咬。大多数情况下它们是在闹着玩,但是,保证马的皮毛看起来完美无损非常重要,因此遛马时一定要妥善的管理。大量的日照会让马毛变得黯淡无光,要避免这种情况的其中一个方法是将遛马的时间安排在晚上。然而,这对有很多马匹的马术中心来说太不切实际了,比如在晚上遛马会影响晚上喂马的时间。

If you are worried about how clean your horse is then be prepared for more grooming when you give your horse pasture turnout. Pastured horses will pick up everything from minor grass stains to impressive whole-body mud packs when they roll, so brushing and grooming may take quite a bit longer. Daily shampooing is the most destructive thing you can do to your horses coat. The horse has a natural flora which is essential to maintaining healthy coat and skin. Stripping out the natural oils and healthy bacteria on the skin will create the idea environment for disease. No more than once a month shampooing for optimum coat health. Do not use anything but a gentle horse shampoo. Harsh detergent or cheap human shampoo is not recommended for a healthy horse coat.
如果你担心马毛是否干净,那么你去围场遛马时得安排更多“grooming”(刷马毛)的时间。马在围场里喜欢满地打滚,蹭到草渍甚至蹭的满身是泥。刷马毛的时间可能会因此而更长了。然而每天用“马毛洗发水”对马毛来说却有破坏性的损害,不利于保持马毛的健康和皮肤的健康。因为马毛发中含有的物质具有至关重要的保护性作用。通过洗发水清洗马毛的同时也会清洗掉这些自然分泌的油及健康物质,甚至会为细菌和疾病的温床。若想保证马毛处于最健康的状态,那么每个月最多只能用洗发水清洗马毛一次。并且应该选择最温和的洗发水。若想保证马毛的健康,不建议使用含有强烈清洁成分的(Harsh detergent)洗发水或便宜的给人用的洗发水。

马蹄和马蹄铁 Hooves and shoes
Stalling is not a guarantee that your horse won’t pull off a shoe, although it’s true that thrown shoes are easier to find in a stall than in the field. Pastured horses feet will encounter some mud and wet grass; stalled horses spend part of each day standing in contact with urine and manure. It is far healthier for the foot to be exercised by walking around a turnout all day than to be still standing in a stall. The “frog” acts as a pump to help push blood and lymph back up the horses leg with each step. Long periods of standing still will often result in swelling of the horses legs. Obviously standing in urine or manure, which is rich in ammonia and bacteria, will create an unhealthy environment for the foot and predispose the horses’ feet to fungal infections and possibly growth abnormalities.
被圈养的马也存在马蹄铁可能会脱落的情况,尽管马厩中相对与围场来说,掉落的马蹄铁更容易被找到。在围场中,马蹄会沾到泥土和湿润的草,而在马厩中的马,其马蹄每天不可避免的会占到尿液和粪便。对马来说,能在围场中运动,走动,比每天长时间站在马厩中来说更健康。马在走动过程中,蹄叉能帮助血液和淋巴液返回到腿步。每天长时间站着不动,则容易导致马蹄浮肿。而站在充满氨和细菌的尿液和粪便中,对马蹄来说非常不健康的环境,容易诱发马蹄出现霉菌性感染的情况甚至引发畸变。

As long as their feet are in reasonable condition and regular trimmings are scheduled, barefoot horses don’t have major problems in the pasture except for the brief period of tenderness that is natural right after shoes are removed.
只要它们的马蹄处于健康合理的环境,并被定期修蹄,没有钉蹄的马在围场不会遇到什么大问题,而马蹄铁被取掉后在一个很短的时期内,马蹄会有轻微的疼痛是属于正常情况。

体重 Weight
For thin horses or those recovering from illness, fresh grass provides a steady supply of calories and is more appealing to horses who are feeling unwell than dry hay. For overweight horses, free movement in the pasture tends to burn more energy than spending the same number of hours in a stall.
对体型偏瘦的马以及正从伤病中逐渐恢复的马来说,新鲜的草相对于干草来说,不但更能给马提供稳定的卡路里,且味道更可口。对于体况偏胖的马来说,在牧场自由奔跑也更利于它们消耗能量。

行为 Behavior
Stalled horses may be jumping with energy and excitement when they are taken out for their daily exercise. Pastured horses, having expended some energy in free movement, will often be quieter to ride or work. School horses will be more familiar with strange sights and sounds if they have spent time outside, and they are likely to be more balanced when negotiating uneven ground if they have encountered natural terrain in the field.
生活在马厩中的马可能会因为激动或者精力过剩而在遛马期间喜欢扬蹄跳跃。而生活在围场中的马因为平时能自由活动,因此会更安静,更容易骑。培训用马在围场时,会不那么容易受到陌生声音会物品的惊吓。同时它们的适应路面不平的场地时的协调能力会更好。

Most importantly, pastured horses are less likely to develop habits like weaving, pawing, kicking, and stall walking, behaviors thought to result from boredom and stress related to solitary confinement. We humans also develop psychological disorders when placed in solitary confinement. It is an animal welfare consideration that is gaining more attention. If we wish our horses to perform as Olympic athletes why are we housing them like prisoners? We seek a happy medium where mental stimuli and physical well-being of the animal can be balanced against our need for convenience.
更重要的是,在围场的马相对于在围场圈养的马来说,更不容易出现摇头,踢人,stall walking等因为在马厩中无聊和紧张而产生的行为。我们人类被放到禁闭的环境中时同样也会出现心理障碍。从动物福利的角度考虑,我们应该对马匹有更多的关注。如果我们希望我们的马有奥运选手一样的表现,我们如何能如同对待囚犯一样对待它们呢?对动物的身心健康的关注其实同我们对它们的需求之间是能达到一个平衡的。

总 结
Providing as much turnout as possible can offer significant advantages over stall life.  In my experience, almost 90% of the problems that I treat are related to a lack of exercise. Turnout, the most natural type of exercise, is probably the easiest way to enhance your horse’s quality of life.
尽可能多的遛马,能对马厩中的马带来无可衡量的好处。根据我的经验,我所治疗过的马中,有90%的问题诱因是缺乏锻炼。遛马,对马来说最自然的运动方式,或许是保证马匹的健康生活的最简单的方式。

遛 种 公 马
许多种公马会出现在围栏前来回跑动的行为数小时,数天,数周的情况。它们会因此体重大幅降低,太不安定而不能被骑。如果围栏设计,安装的不合理,它们可能会很容易弄伤自己。

If you build two turnout areas and put your stallion on one side and another horse on the other side they will both get hurt. One will try and bite or kick the other at some point and they will crash through the fence and get all cut and damaged. If people try and run in and stop them someone can easily be hurt.
如果你建设两个遛马围场,将一匹种公马放到一个围场,另一匹种公马放到另一个围栏种,它们可能会因此受伤。隔着围栏其中一匹可能突然会试着踢咬另一匹种公马,它们可能会撞伤围栏,因此被割伤,甚至受到致命伤害。如果人们冲进马场试着阻止它们,人可能会因此受伤。

Not all stallions can be kept in paddock turnout. Some like to live in a paddock with a horse friend they know very well, others will chase a second horse until it crashes through the fence and gets hurt. Stallions are territorial animals, the paddock belongs to them and they will chase anything (including humans) who come into the paddock or yard.
不是所有的种公马适合去围场遛马。有一些马喜欢和熟悉的马群生活在围场,有些可能会追逐驱赶别的马直到对方撞进围栏受伤为止。种公马是攻击性很强的动物,它们是围场的主人,它们会驱逐任何“入侵”它们领地的动物甚至人。

遛马围场的重要性和注意事项

The size of the paddock also makes a big difference to its safety as does rounded versus 90 degree corners. There are a few rules with regard to turn out fences:
围场的大小对马的安全来说也非常重要。太小的围场要注意不要有小于90度的夹角出现。下面是一些遛马围场的修建注意事项:

1.  All horse paddocks must be constructed with lane ways in between.
所有马围场相互之间必须要有做为隔断的间隔小道
  
2. All horse paddock management must be done correctly, manure picked up every day and any breaks in the fences fixed immediately.
所有的马围栏必须被正确的设计修建。粪便必须及时清理,损坏之处必须立刻修复

3. All paddocks should have a safe waterer, lockable gate and a salt block.
所有的围场必须有安全的经过防水处理的,能安全上锁的门

4. Ideally the fence should be highly visible.
围栏的对马来说的能见度必须要高

5. The traditional horse fences are constructed with wooden post and rail with additional electric fencing to make sure the horses respect the fence. There are now modern alternatives which are far easier to construct like the Magnum Pasture Rail fencing system.
传统的马围栏是由木桩和轨道型木板制作的,加上带电的围栏,能确保马“尊重”围栏。现代更科学的围栏方案是Magnum围场围栏,能使得安装更容易。

These are a few rules if you keep stallions. If you do not obey the rules you will be putting your horse in danger.
这只是对于种公马来说非常基础的一些注意事项。如不遵守,那么可能置你的马于不安全的环境中。

总 结
In conclusion, complete turnout with free grazing is hard to manage in most Chinese equestrian centres. In these cases I would recommend the installation of a top-quality horse walker. These machines have a roof to protect the horses from sun and rain and a rubberized track to walk on for hoof protection. They can be set at a slow walking speed and up to 10 or 12 horses can be walked together which gives the horses social interaction whilst quietly walking. The benefits are obvious; the horses can get natural walking exercise in all weather conditions. Only one person is needed to exercise 12 horses at once. In very large equestrian centres there is opportunity for every horse to get exercised everyday without a rider.
综上所述,让马在围场自由的吃草运动,对大多数中国的马术中心来不太实际。这种情况下,我会建议选择安全,质量最好的遛马机。这些机器带有屋顶,能保护马不受风吹雨打日晒,橡胶地板能保证马蹄的安全。遛马机能设定运动速度的快慢,10-12匹马能在同一时间被遛,这让马在得到高质量运动的同时有一个互动的机会,其好处是显而易见的:无论天气如何马都能得到适当的运动。一个人就能同时遛12匹马。那么对大型马术中心来说,能确保每匹马都得到运动和锻炼却又不需要骑手来提供训练。

If horses are low in the social order and are in danger of abuse from their herd mates, they may not do well in a turnout with higher socially ranked animals and a horse walker allows them to see other horses without being in danger.
如果马匹在马群中等级很低,那么它在马群中就容易受到同伴的欺负,它们可能在遛马过程中得不到好的锻炼,而遛马机则能避免这种情况,让它能在见到同伴的同时又不会被同伴伤害。

For show animals whose coats must remain in unblemished condition, the horse walker roof keeps the sun or rain off the coat. It also allows the horses to be easily exercised when weather conditions prevent riding in outdoor arenas.
对用于表演的马来说,马毛必须被维护的非常好,带屋顶的遛马机器能阻止阳光和雨水对马毛的损害。同时还让马在天气不好的情况下也能轻松的锻炼。

Regardless of the management system used, it’s worthwhile to cater to the horse’s nature by making turnout part of his daily schedule.
无论如果管理,让马能通过每天有计划的遛马,对马来说都是一件非常愉快的事情。






作者:凯瑟琳 · 戴维斯


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