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[文字] 24条实用骑乘与教学金律,你做到了几条?(二)

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发表于 2017-2-9 04:44:16 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

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1个小时内解决不了的问题,就先放一边,明天再继续。 ——Bill Steinkraus

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9、如果马匹不能学着听从你的扶助,对双方都没好处。

训练马匹需要爱(有时甚至是强硬的爱),它不是人与马打架。如果你看见有些人总是在跟他们的马斗争时,其实是他们没有真正理解其中的奥秘,那些可怜的马也不能理解骑手在做什么。你需要不断的去学习最基本的骑乘要点并练习,直到你真正理解它们,让它们为你所用。

10、使用扶助应收放自如。

要明白主动扶助与被动扶助。马匹服从扶助后,应立即减轻扶助对马的压力,这对马匹来说也是明确的奖励。只有这样马匹下一次才会更快的回应你的扶助,这也是Bill所提倡的马匹自我承载的基础。

11、过犹不及。

这里指的是“颈部给缰”这件事,对于初级骑手以及那些正在调教新马的骑手来讲,给长缰是对的,也是恰当的。过了这一阶段,跳障碍时则需要“择度给缰”,如“短给缰”和“自动给缰”。给缰不需要太夸张,更不应该胡乱给缰。

12、骑马时要经常带着鞭子,慢慢的你就很少需要它了。

这是一个不言而明的道理,在任何骑乘与调教过程中,你都应当知道鞭子的不同使用方式,骑手需要让马学着接受他的马鞭。只要每天骑马时你带着鞭子,而不去滥用它,马匹自然而然会接受。

13、如果你已经反复尝试去完成一个动作或练习,却做不到,那就试试其它方法,甚至是正好相反的方法。

对于骑马这件事,我们所有人很容易变得墨守成规,思维狭窄。打开你的思路,运用你的想象力,尝试并接受改变。

14、知道何时开始、何时停止,合适拒绝、何时奖励。

这项建议需要你不断通过策骑不同的马匹来积累经验。有些人与马匹遇到问题时喜欢回避,有些人则不知道什么时候该停下来。这两种人一个像钻孔机一样无节制地消耗马匹的体力与精力,另一个像马匹杀手,都不可取。

15、如果一定需要一场斗争来解决问题,选好恰当的时候和合适的地点。

如果我知道在某个问题上我会遇到阻力,那么我会先设置好相似的场景,通过练习解决问题。比如,先让马匹试着跳过一个小水坑,如果它做到了,那么以后的利物浦与开放水障也不会是什么问题。

16、1个小时内解决不了的问题,就先放一边,明天再继续。

这是我从Bill那学到的。在日常训练时,即便遇到问题,我也很少会骑一匹马超过50分钟。把你的自负放到一边,把马牵回马房休息,明天再试,或许你还可以换换另一种方法。

17、快捷解决问题的方法是事先避免可能性问题的发生。

这样的例子不胜枚举,如:上马前仔细检查你的鞍具装备;确保上马前脚蹬均已放下,且是适合你的蹬带长度;调整脚蹬时不脱蹬;当你准备加速时,要收短缰时刻保持与马嘴的联系……

18、马匹跳障碍时,不要做别的,顺着它即可。

在障碍赛上,我们看到骑手的动作与舞步赛上相比有过之而无不及。“隐形辅助、马匹自我承载、等你的马匹”等都是经验之谈。认真思考这些话并努力践行。

19、避免过度训练或枯燥的路线让马匹失去良好跳跃的欲望,若马匹不愿去尝试,骑手也很难取得零罚分。

这应该是Bill给予你的最好的一条忠告了。最坏的事情就是你将马匹训练得身心俱疲。一旦马匹失去“尝试”的欲望,除了让它恢复活力别无他法。但这可能需要数周、月甚至难以恢复到从前。最出色的骑手出自活力充沛的良驹。

20、障碍杆掉到地上之前,永远不要灰心放弃。

每位骑手都希望努力取得零罚分,所有冠军骑手都会设法避免打落障碍,不论他们的起跳点有多近。简直太神奇了!

21、年轻马就如同小孩子——要给予足够的爱,但是不要给它们任何机会钻空子。

爱,但一定要和纪律相结合,这在训练马匹时是必不可少的。否则不服从、抗拒、逃避等恶习便会像野草一样疯长。

22、训练时可以追求极致;比赛中只求无憾。

美国骑手,经常被欧洲的对手们嘲笑为:在唯美中死去。确实是这样。虽然我们的技术与风格更胜一筹,但他们通常是更强劲的竞争者。

23、不要和燕麦过不去。

许多马等不到功成名就的一刻,“超越马匹本身”能力的训练不可能将马匹训练好。

24、越努力,越幸运。

现今的社会上,你会在晚餐桌上听到许多人在谈论他们在马术比赛中的设想——去赢地区赛,全国比赛,去参加大奖赛,甚至参加奥运会。通常这类人只是“口头的巨人”,只有“行动派”才有可能真正达到那些目标。

Bill Steinkraus的这些金律很神奇吧!它们像智慧的宝石与珍珠一样引导你走在正确的学习轨道上,这也是我和大家分享的原因。

George H. Morris:美国著名的马术骑手、教练和裁判员,曾任美国场地障碍国家马术队领队及总教练。1960年罗马奥运会代表美国队获团体银牌。数十次国家冠军队成员,赢得过传统大赛德国亚琛及加拿大卡尔加里的冠军。14岁就成为最年轻的美国国家队冠军。2006年FEI世界马术大会个人和团体银牌,曾带领美国队获得2004年雅典奥运会和2008年北京奥运会团体金牌。他的学生遍及世界各地,取得过不计其数的世界马术障碍赛冠军,其中包括著名的美国骑手 Beezie Madden 和德国骑手 Meredith Michaels-Beerbaum。Morris 还曾被英国马术杂志《马术师实践》誉为世纪骑手,深受马术圈内人士的敬重。

Bill Steinkraus:担任了多年美国场地障碍国家马术队队长,可谓有史以来独具智慧的骑手之一,他的美式轻骑法广受褒奖。Bill 既是George Morris在美国国家队的队友,也是对他影响巨大的导师。

George Morris自述在成长过程中,曾听到、看到并多次运用到许多Bill的骑乘格言金律,这也一直帮助他,让他保持良好的骑马与教学状态。他记述了24条Bill非常实用的格言金律,并结合亲身实践经验写了这篇文章,希望对骑手们有所助益。

Two Dozen of Bill Steinkraus’ Useful Aphorisms(2)

No. 9. If the horse can't learn to accept what you are doing, it isn't any good.  
Training horses is love (sometimes tough love), not war. When you see someone always fighting with their horses, they don't understand. And neither do the poor horses. Study and practice classic techniques until you understand them and they work for you.

No. 10. Once you've used aid, put it back.  
This has to do with active versus passive aids. Once the horse has responded and yielded, relax the pressure. That is the reward.  Then he'll look to respond quicker the next time. Bill's advice is the basis of self-carriage.

No. 11. You can exaggerate every virtue into a defect.  
I'm sure Bill was thinking of the "crest release." I know I am. The long crest release is a virtue far beginner riders or when working with very green horses. After that, there are better ways to use your hands when jumping, such as the "short release" and the "automatic release"(the following hand). The crest release is exaggerated and often used grotesquely.

No. 12. Always carry a stick, then you will seldom need it.  
This is a truism if I ever hard one, For any serious riding or schooling, you should know how to use it in a variety of ways.  Any and every horse can be taught to accept a stick if you carry it every day and don't abuse him with it.

No. 13. If you've given something a fair trial and it still doesn't work, try something else-even the opposite.
We all lend to be set in our ways and narrow-minded when working with horses. Be open-minded and imaginative, and be willing to change.

No. 14. Know when to start and when to stop. Know when to resist and when to reward.  
This piece of advice takes lots of experience dealing with lots of different horses. Some people hate to confront  an issue head-on with a horse. Some people don't know when to stop.They're drillers and killers. They're the worst.

No. 15. If you're going to have a fight, you pick the time and place.
I'm constantly setting up situations where I know I'll get small resistances so can break them up. Just a simple thing, like getting a horse through a puddle. Once that is accomplished, the liverpool and the open water won't be such a task.

No. 16. What you can't accomplish in an hour should usually be put off until tomorrow.  
This is a great piece of advice I learned from Bill. I rarely ride a horse more than 50 minutes, if that, in training. Put your ego a side and put your horse back in the barn and try again tomorrow. Perhaps try a different tactic.

No. 17. You can think your way out of many problems faster than you can ride your way out of them.  
A few examples of this are : Check your tack thoroughly before mounting. Make sure your off stirrup is down before mounting and that your stirrups are approximately your length.Keep your foot in the stirrup when adjusting the irons. Always have a short rein with a feel of your horse’s mouth before going to a faster pace. I could go on,and on,and on.

No. 18.When the horse jumps,you go with it, not the other way around.
Excess motion in the hunter/jumper ring is equally,if not more,appalling than in the dressage ring. Invisibility of aids,self-carriage and wait for your horse are all truisms.Learn what those terms mean and practice the principles.

No. 19.Don’t let over-jumping or dull routine erode the horse’s desire to jump cleanly.It’s hard to jump clear rounds if the horse isn’t trying.
This is probably the best single piece of advice Bill could give you.Drilling a horse until he is stale and sore is the worst thing you can do .Once a horse has lost his“try”,there is noting you can do except let him freshen up.And that can take weeks months or never. The cleanest jumper is a fresh horse.

No. 20.Never give up until the rail hits the ground.
One often has to fight to jump clear.All winning jumper riders somehow know how to leave the jumps up,no matter how tight a spot they get in.What Margie Engle!

No. 21.Young horses are like children -give them a lot of love, but don’t let them get away with anything.
Love,coupled with discipline,is the sine qua non of horse training. Disobedience ,resistances and evasions tend to grow like weeds.

No. 22.In practice,do things as perfectly as you can;in competition, do what you have to do.
Americans have always been child? by their European counterparts about dying in their beauty.And rightly so. Often our technique and style are better,but they,as a rule,are tougher competitors.

No. 23. Never fight the oats.  
Many horses cannot stand prosperity. It is impossible to train a horse who is always "above himself."

No. 24. The harder you work, the luckier you get.
Nowadays, a lot of people talk over dinner about where they hope Lo gel in the horse game-win the ASPCA Maclay Finals, be amateur-owner hunter champion at Devon (Pa.), ride grand prix, or get on the Olympic team. Usually those are the “talkers”. It's the "workers" who attain those lofty goals.

Aren't Bill Steinkraus' aphorisms wonderful?They are little gems. pearls of wisdom that keep you on the right track. That’s why I had Co share them with you.






来源:天星调良



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发表于 2017-2-9 12:58:50 | 显示全部楼层
好贴子,学习了。

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发表于 2017-2-9 15:10:13 | 显示全部楼层
谢谢,学习了
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