马房管理:你的马快乐吗?(上篇)

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木辛 发表于 2016-12-29 12:42:01 [显示全部楼层] 只看大图 回帖奖励 倒序浏览 阅读模式 1 1957

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Horse people around the world share certain qualities: a genuine affection for their horses, an honest desire to learn, a willingness to listen to their horses and curiosity to seek answers for the problems they are having with their horses. You surely must be a horse person, otherwise why would you be reading this article?

世上的爱马人,都具有一些共同的品质:对自己的马怀有深厚感情,具有诚恳的求知欲,愿意倾听自己的马,并且具有探寻能为马解决问题的好奇心。我的读者们,你们必然都是爱马人,否则,你何必来读这篇文章呢?

True horsemanship has nothing to do with learning lists of “Equine Do’s and Don’ts”. It means watching, listening and analyzing your horse and its behavior. It means reading, discussing and thinking about your approach to your horses’ behavior and how you may wish to change it. It is a journey of discovery that countless others have made before you and it is our good fortune to learn from those who have been here before, both human and horse.

真正的马术(horsemanship),跟学习“关于马你必须知道的xxx”等框框条条毫无关系。马术意味着观察,倾听,分析你的马和它的行为。马术意味着阅读、探讨、思考你如何影响马的行为,以及所希望做出的改变。马术是一个探索之旅,在你之前,已经有无数人探索了这段旅程,能向这些人和马学习,是你我的幸运。

Most problems between humans and horses are the result of human actions. These actions may be in the past or the present. For example: Imagine carrying a bucket into a field of strange horses you have never seen before. Chances are they will be crowding around you in about 6 seconds flat! Someone in the past trained those horses to believe that oats came in a bucket and, we know, they all love to eat oats. Now, imagine quietly walking into the same field with a halter and immediately all the horses run to the far corner of the field. The horses’ behavior in both cases has given you some information about those people who have trained these horses, it has nothing to do with you. However, if you wish to ride these horses then you sensibly will have to do something different to alter their behavior and make them easy to catch.

人和马之间所存在的大部分问题,是由人的行为导致的。这些行为或许发生在过去,或许正在发生。举例来说:请想像你挎着一个桶走进牧场,牧场里的马以前虽然从没见过你,但它们在几秒之内都围过来簇拥着你!那么过去一定有人训练了这些马,让它们相信桶里面装着的是燕麦——众所周知,燕麦是马的最爱。现在,请想像你安静的走进同一个放牧场,你随身携带的是马笼头,结果这些马一看到你就跑的远远的。两个例子,都是为了告诉你,是那些训练马的人导致了马做出了上述行为,马的反应,其实和你本身并没有关系。然而,如果你希望骑这些马,明智的做法是采取一些不同的行动,从而调整这些马的行为,才能更容易“俘获”它们。

Modern horse training is not a simple path from A to B, in fact, there are several centuries of knowledge from Europe that influences our modern thinking and training. In past centuries, people’s directions on how to partner with a horse were influenced by their purpose. Horses had a purpose – to serve us – without complaint. Whether laboring in the fields, carrying soldiers to battle, pulling carts or transportation, horses were seen as a tool to do our bidding.

现代马匹训练并不是一条从A点到达B点的简单直线,事实上,我们的现代马术观和马术训练,受到了欧洲数个世纪的马文化及知识的影响和熏陶。在过去数个世纪里,我们祖先如何“与马为伴”,取决于当时的环境和人们的需求所赋予给马的“使命”。马曾经的使命是为人类服务——毫无怨言,它们被视为“劳动工具”,任我们驱使,在田间劳动,同士兵们并肩作战,拉车,运输。


I visited Xinjiang recently and saw horses laboring for the farmers by pulling wagons into town. But today’s horses can be so much more.  I have seen hundreds of European Warmblood’s and dozens of thoroughbred racehorses throughout China kept in stables purely for their owners’ pleasure and prestige. Horses also can serve as a friend, teacher, mentor, psychologist and soul-mate. For many people, especially little girls, the horse is their first love. We owe it to the horse, kept as part of our modern lifestyle, to become educated and understand their behavior. If we do so, their and our lives will also be enhanced.

最近我拜访新疆时,注意到马仍然作为货运工具服务于农民。然而,现代马的“使命”已经不仅限于此了。我在中国各地看到过成百上千的欧洲温血马和纯血马,它们住在马厩中,为了它们主人的乐趣和荣耀而存在。马的使命不再是“劳动工具”,而是作为我们的朋友,老师,导师,心理学家,灵魂伴侣等角色。对很多人,尤其是小女孩们来说,马犹如人生中的初恋。我们为了追求现代生活方式而养马,因此我们有义务对马心怀感恩,通过不断的学习,真正理解马的行为。假如我们能这样做,那么无论是我们,还是马的生命,都将更有意义。

Horse owners are starting to ask better questions. Instead of “Is there a medicine/ gadget/ punishment/feed that will make my horse stop doing this behavior”, more enlightened horse owners are asking, “Why is my horse doing this, and what can I do about it?”

马主们咨询的问题,越来越有深度了。不再是问“是否有一种药/工具/惩罚方式/饲料让我的马不再做出这样的行为?”,越来越多开明的马主开始咨询“为什么我的马会做出这样的行为?我应该怎样应对?”

If you are a typical horse owner, you sometimes find yourself frustrated and baffled by the behavior shown by your horse. Even those who think they have to punish the horse’s misbehavior by mechanical or chemical means (beating or drugging the horse) are often happy to discover all they really need is a greater understanding of the reason behind the horses actions.

如果你是资深马主,你会发现自己经常因为马的一些行为感到沮丧和困惑。有些马主在马做出不恰当的行为时,认为他们不得不采用暴力或药物(鞭打或给马用药)惩罚它们。然而,他们会欣喜的发现,自己真正需要的是:更加深层次的理解“马做出某个行为的原因”。

When you are frustrated or angry there is only one thing to remember, this is a HORSE with a simple horses’ brain, not a human with our complex brain! To beat a horse for doing something that comes naturally to him, like running away from pain, is clearly the act of a brutal or crazy person.

当你沮丧或者生气时,必须谨记一件事情:“它只是一匹马——头脑简单,不具备人类的复杂头脑!”。因为马出于本能而做出诸如“因疼痛而逃跑”等行为而鞭打它们,实在是残酷或疯狂的人才会采取的行为。

It is important to differentiate between horse behaviors that are Instinctive or Learned. You need to know how to encourage, discourage, modify or eliminate specific Learned Behaviors. You also need to know which innate behaviors are destructive to the well-being of the horse (known as Stereotypical Behaviors) and how to help the horse cope in situations that cause him stress. Stereotypical behaviors always arise from stress, including mental and sometimes physical stress.

区分马的行为是属于“本能反应”还是来自于“后天习得”,非常重要。你需要知道如何鼓励、劝阻,纠正,杜绝某些特定的“后天习得”行为;还需要知道哪些“先天性行为”对马的福利有害(已知的有:刻板行为Stereotypical Behaviors),以及如何帮助马适应会导致它们出现“应激反应”的场景。刻板行为(Stereotypical Behaviors)通常是由于应激反应引发的,既包括心理应激,某些情况下也包括生理应激。

This journey to understand horse behavior is complex and most of the answers demand that you think, consider and ask yourself even more questions. It is fundamental to truly understand that a horse lives a “horse life” which is radically different from a human life. It is impossible for him to react like a human being as his brain is not human. His priorities are completely different from his owners. Do you really think a horse would love to live in a box and once a week run fast in a big circle with 10 other horses? If you understand horse behavior and evolutionary history you will know he would be happiest in a vast warm grassland, with trees for shade and a stream for water living within a herd of mares, foals, colts and a dominant stallion.

“理解马的行为”是一个复杂的探索之旅,需要你不断思索,不断向自己提出更多疑问,才能寻求到答案。在这个探索之旅中,最基础的是要真正的理解“马所感受的世界,对其环境做出的反应”和人是不同的。马的头脑和人的不同,要它做出“像人一样的反应”是不可能的。对“马来说最重要的事情”肯定不同于“对马主来说重要的事情”。你真的认为马会喜欢受困于狭窄的马厩,每周被拉出去——和别的马一起围着赛马跑道全速赛跑?如果你理解马的行为和进化历程,你将明白马最喜欢和自己的同伴,母马、小公马、小马驹,在领头的种公马的带领下一起生活在辽阔、温暖的草原,有高大的树木为它们遮挡阳光,有清澈的溪流提供甘甜的水。

Unfortunately, few modern horses in China live in equine paradise, so it is our job to understand how to keep his mind and body happy within the confines of a post-industrial environment.

遗憾的是,在中国,几乎没有现代马能生活在马的乐园,因此,学习如何保证生活在现代工业化环境中的马身心愉悦,是我们的责任。

There is a lifetime of learning to be had and as you grow in experience you will become a mentor to others who are newer to the world of modern horsemanship. Very often there are two answers to exactly the same problem which a novice would not have the experience to differentiate.

这是一个终身学习的过程,随着你经验的丰富,你会逐渐成为他人的导师,引导初学者进入现代马术世界。探索过程中你会发现,针对同一个问题,往往会有两个完全不同的答案,而初学者往往没有经验对区分二者的差别。

For example, take the case of a horse that refuses to jump a small cross bar that he has jumped many times before. Here are the trainers’ responses for the same horse with two different riders:

举例来说,假如一匹障碍马在一处它已经成功跳过很多次的交叉杆前拒跳了,出现该情况的是同一匹马,不同的两个骑手。教练对此做出了以下两种反应:

Answer 1: Present the horse to the fence again and give him a tap with the whip to encourage him forward.


Why? The horse is simply taking advantage of a rider with weak legs who cannot push him on to the fence strongly enough and he has therefore stopped.

处理方案一:骑马回到该交叉杆前,给马一鞭,以督促马向前冲。

为何?该骑手的腿部力量弱,不足以督促马跨越障碍,马因此而拒跳。

Answer 2: Stop jumping the horse immediately.


Why? Because this rider has a weak seat position and previously when he jumped the fence the rider became unbalanced and harshly jabbed the horse in the mouth. In fact, the riders’ hands told the horse to stop last time so the horse is anticipating the same command and is logically (using his horse brain) coming to a stop.

处理方案二:立刻让马停止训练。

为什么?因为这个骑手不够强壮,做不稳,不能保持平衡(has a weak seat position),上一次跳障碍时,该骑手失去平衡并且非常用力扯缰绳,猛烈刺激了马的嘴,因此骑手通过手的动作命令马停止。这一次跳交叉杆时,马认为自己会收到同样的指令,因此,以马的观点来看,在障碍前停下来是理所当然的。

As you can see, the two answers are opposites yet both are correct. It is the experience of the trainer that allows him or her to choose the appropriate response.

如你所见,这两个完全相反的处理方案都是正确的——因为教练有丰富的经验,能采取正确的处理方法。

刻板行为

Stereotypical Behavior

So far we have been considering normal or Learned Behavior, but there is another type of equine behavior called Stereotypical Behavior. It is often an unconscious response to stress and we will also consider how nutrition may impact these vices.

目前,我们只讨论了马的正常行为和习得行为,然而,马还有一类行为,被称为“刻板行为-Stereotypical Behavior”。这是一种因为应激反应而产生的无意识的行为,我们还将讨论如何从营养学的角度应对这种恶习。

Scientists study stereotypical behaviors in many different animal species and define them as “invariant and repetitive behavior patterns that seemingly have no function”. They tend to develop in captive animals and may be indicative of reduced welfare. Stereotypic behaviors can be grouped into oral and locomotory types.

科学家们研究了在不同动物身上出现的刻板行为(stereotypical behaviors),并将之定义为“无明显目的的、不变的、以固定频率反复重复的无任何功能效果的行为”。刻板行为倾向于出现在圈养动物身上,其出现意味着该动物的生活福利降低了。刻板行为可被分为“口部”和“运动”两个类型。

Wood Chewing, Cribbing and Windsucking – Stereotypical Behaviours That Lead to Poor Condition, Colic and Stomach Ulcers

啃木头,咬槽癖(Cribbing),咽气癖(windsucking)-会导致马体况下降、腹痛、胃溃疡的刻板行为。

咬槽癖(Cribbing)

Cribbing is an oral stereotypy that involves the act of grasping a fixed object, usually a rail, fencepost or stable door, with the incisor teeth. The horse emits a grunting sound with or without aspirating air into the cranial part of the oesophagus.

咬槽癖(Cribbing)是一种口部刻板行为(oral stereotypy),即用切牙啃咬某个固定物体,诸如围栏,围栏桩,或马厩门。在咽气或没咽气的情况下发出咕哝声。

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Cribbing, windsucking and wood chewing also damage a horses teeth and oral structures. Throughout a horse's lifetime, its teeth wear naturally from eating roughage and processed feeds. Chewing wood excessively wears the incisor teeth, lessening the horse's ability to properly chew and digest food. Poor tooth surface impacts the horse's capability to maintain a proper weight. When left unattended, this can ultimately shorten the horse's life span.

咬槽癖(Cribbing),咽气癖(windsucking),以及啃木头都会损坏马的牙齿和口腔结构。在马的一生中,牙齿在咀嚼粗饲料和精加工饲料的过程中被自然磨损。啃木头会造成切牙磨损更快,导致马正常咀嚼和消化食物的能力受损。牙齿表面的状态不好,会导致马难以维持恰当的体重。如果你不阻止马啃木头的行为,你最终会导致马的寿命减短。

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Working closely with a veterinarian or an equine dentist to regularly monitor wear of the horse's teeth and to make any necessary changes by filing is critical to maintaining the overall health of the horse.

要维持马的整体健康,最关键的是:咨询兽医或马牙医,经常检测马牙齿磨损的情况,并在必要情况下给马挫牙 。

To understand why a horse chews wood, it is first important to understand the difference between cribbing, wood sucking, and wood chewing.

为什么马会啃木头呢?要理解这个行为,首先你要能明白咬槽癖,咽气癖,啃木头这三种行为之间的差别。

According to recent research, crib biting occurs in about one in 10 stabled horses. It is recognized as a vice in racehorses and was once thought to be genetic and virtually incurable. However, it has since been found that crib biting is closely related to high-concentrate diets and insufficient roughage. With good management, the habit can be prevented. Many trainers believe that this vice can be learned and are very reluctant to have a crib biter or windsucker in their stables fearing that others will mimic this undesirable behavior. It is also thought these behaviors can become a habit, in many cases impossible to break.

最近的研究显示,圈养的马中,每十匹马就有一匹马患有咬槽癖。这是公认的出现在速度赛马身上的恶习。人们曾经认为该行为能通过基因遗传的,几乎无法治愈。然而,研究发现,该行为的出现与马日粮中“精饲料含量高,粗纤维饲料含量低”的饲料配置关联很大。好的马房管理能预防该恶习的出现。很多教练认为,马会“学习”到这种恶习,由于担心别的马会模仿这些行为,他们极不希望自己的马厩中出现患有咬槽癖、咽气癖的马。还有些人认为,这些行为会被发展成“无意识的惯常行为”,几乎不可能纠正。

Horses that chew wood are suffering from either boredom or nutritional inadequacy. There is a direct relationship between the amount of fiber in the horses diet and the amount of wood chewing that occurs.

实际上,马出现啃木头的行为,要么是因为无聊,要么是因为缺乏营养。马的日粮中“纤维的含量”与“啃木头行为的出现”是有直接联系的。

Chewing on wood, can progress to the more serious condition of cribbing and wind sucking. The horse may become obsessed with chewing any wood they can get their teeth into. In the stable or paddock they can, over a period of time, chew through solid boards. A horse that crib bites will start by licking its feeding crib, or the stable door, and biting down with its incisor teeth. It then opens its mouth, arches its neck and sucks in air, making a grunting sound. This is a form of obsessive or compulsive behavior and can be repeated as many as 8 000 times a day. Many horses damage their incisor teeth in the process.

啃木头的行为可能发展成更严重的咬槽癖和咽气癖。马会痴迷于咀嚼任何它们牙齿能接触到的木头。它们甚至可能会不断咀嚼马厩或放牧场中的木板,把“木板”都吃掉。有咬槽癖的马,最开始是舔饲料槽或马厩门;然后用切牙啃咬木板;随后张开嘴,弓着脖子,吞咽空气,发出低沉的咕哝的声音。这是一种偏执强迫症行为,甚至能在一天中重复8000次,很多马在这一过程中损坏了切牙。

An affected horse often stands away from other herd members and does not interact with them. It is also normally in poor condition and prone to colic due to stomach ulcers (Please read Equine Gut Function and Considerations Regarding Ulcers online). It is important to check for the condition when buying a horse, especially racing Thoroughbreds.

出现这些行为的马,可能会远离它们的同伴,不与同伴交流。在生存环境不好,或患有胃溃疡的情况下(请阅读凯瑟琳博士的文章《胃溃疡和马的肠道功能》),马也会出现这些行为。因此,在买马时,特别是买速度赛的纯血马时,检查马的状态是非常重要的。

What is the cause

成因是什么?

Extensive research conducted on large groups of racehorses has shown a clear link to lack of grazing on pasture. The condition can develop as early as seven months of age, when foals are weaned away from their mothers and often locked up in a barn or stable. Windsucking was seen in nearly one-third of two-year-old racehorses after being brought to trainers, stabled for most of the day and fed high levels of concentrate.

有丰富的研究显示:大量速度塞马出现这些行为,与“速度赛的马缺乏在牧场grazing(自由的走走停停吃草)的机会”有直接关系。这些行为最早会在马驹7个月时出现,马驹断奶后,通常被关进马厩中。 将近三分之一的两岁速度赛马会出现咽气癖,因为在它们被交给训马师后,每天大部分时间被圈养在马厩,日粮中“精饲料含量高”。

Researchers found that the stomach fluid of affected horses was highly acidic and suggested that windsucking is a defense mechanism that increases salivation. Saliva is alkaline and could have a buffering effect on stomach acid.

研究人员还发现,出现该类行为的马,它们胃液中胃酸含量非常高,因而咽气癖实际是一种能增加唾液分泌的防御机制。唾液是碱性的,对胃酸有中和作用。

What can be done   

对此,我们能做什么?

Successful prevention has been achieved with a windsucking collar. These are made of leather, with a small square projection that prevents the horse from arching its neck to suck in air. They are fastened around the throat, almost like a dog collar and should not be too tight as they can block off the jugular vein, preventing normal blood circulation. An affected horse should wear this collar at all times, except when it is ridden. This is not a cure and does not address the mental stress that the horse suffers which causes the windsucking behavior.

防咽气癖项圈(windsucking collar)能成功预防咽气癖。它们是皮制的,方形的突出部分,能预防马弓着脖子吸进空气。将其固定在咽喉处,就好比狗项圈,不应该太紧,以避免压迫颈静脉影响正常的血液循环。出现该行为的马,除非这些马正在被人骑乘,应该一直带着防咽气癖项圈(windsucking collar)。然而,这并不能治愈马,也不能帮我们找到导致马出现咽气癖行为的心理应激。

Although the collar is fairly effective, it is important that these horses are fed sufficient hay or kept at pasture where they can graze all day. It is also a good idea to put them in paddocks with electric fencing instead of fences that are easy to chew on. If they must be stabled then they should only be stabled at night and always provided lots of quality hay. Treatments include feeding an antacid supplement, and making sure the horses diet has been created by an equine nutritionist to address the digestive system consequences of this behavioral issue.

尽管防咽气癖项圈(windsucking collar)相当有效,与此同时给这些马吃充足的草,或让它们全部时间都呆在能自由吃草的放牧场,也非常重要。此外,把这些马放在安装有电围栏的放牧场,也是一个好方法——围栏是木头的,它们很容易就能啃到围栏。假如它们必须要被安置在马厩,那么你应该只在晚上把它们放在马厩中,并且确保要给它们提供很多的优质的草。治疗方案包括,给马补充抗酸剂(antacid supplement),并且确保马的日粮计划是由马匹营养学专家制定的,因为他们了解“这一行会给马的消化系统带来哪些问题”。



来源:Dr.K的小课堂

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