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[文字] 安德森驯马——牵引绳的脱敏训练

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发表于 2020-3-5 14:55:08 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

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平地工作是基础,它能帮助建立马对骑手的基本尊重和信任,使马多思考。平地训练包括灵敏训练和脱敏训练,这一期我们将学习马对牵引绳的脱敏训练。
Groundwork is effective because it establishes you as your horse's leader, teaching him to trust and respect you. It also gets your horse to use the thinking side of his brain rather than the reactive side.While groundwork includes both sensitizing and desensitizing exercises, in this lesson, we'll focus on desensitizing your horse.

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目标:骑手向马任何部位抛出牵引绳,马可以放松地站在原地。
Goal: To be able to throw the lead rope over and around any part of the horse's body while the horse stands still and relaxes.
训练作用:让马不害怕骑手和骑手所使用的工具,如果马对用具或骑手感到害怕,就会处于恐惧中而不能把注意力集中在学习上。
What this does: This will begin the process of making sure your horse doesn't fear you or your tools. If he scared of you or your tools, he'll always focus on the fear and not on the lesson you're trying to teach him.

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接下来让我们一起学习一下训练的10个步骤:
1. 站在马肩膀的位置。骑手站的位置应与马的肩膀呈45°角,离马一个胳膊的距离。45°角是最安全的角度,马的后腿既刨不到你,前腿也碰不到你。
Stand at your horse's shoulder. Stand a 45-degree angle to the horse's shoulder, an arm's length away. Standing at a 45-degree angle is the safest place to be, because you're too far forward to get kicked by a hind leg, and you're too far to the side to be struck by a front leg.

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2. 牵引绳的位置。抓牵引绳的手与马眼睛的高度保持一致且距离马大约一尺半的距离(45cm)。如果牵引绳过长马可能不听骑手指挥甚至转身踢骑手。而将手放在与眼睛同高的地方可以让马集中注意力,在受惊时防止向前急冲。
Position the lead rope. Hold the lead rope about a foot and a half from the snap, and keep your hand up in the air, level with your horse's eye. If the rope was any longer, it would give your horse the opportunity to turn and run, or kick you.This will stop him from running over the top of you if he gets pushy and disrespectful. It also allows you to bump his head toward you if he walks around you or turns his head away from you.

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3. 向马扔牵引绳。使用牵引绳末端大约两英尺(60cm)向马扔去,先从抛向肩隆开始慢慢移动到后背位置。
Throw the lead rope. Throw approximately two feet of the end of the lead rope over your horse's withers and back.

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4. 结束:如果你发现马有舔嘴唇做咀嚼的动作或抬起一条后腿、大叹一口气、低下头,这证明马很放松。用扔牵引绳的手拍拍他进行脱敏训练的部位,意为工作结束,做的非常好。如果马一直没有表现出放松,但在进行训练时一直保持站立不动且时长超过15秒钟,这证明马对牵引绳已经不再恐惧,这时就可以拍拍马,告诉他训练结束。
Retreat. When your horse relaxes, he'll show one of four signs: licking his lips; cocking a hind leg; taking a deep breath; or lowering his head and neck.
When your horse keeps his feet still and shows a sign of relaxing, rub his withers and back with the hand that was throwing the rope as a sign of retreat.
If your horse doesn't show one of those five signs, but he stands still for at least fifteen seconds, he's telling you that he's no longer fearful and you can go ahead and retreat and rub him with the rope.

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4. 结束:如果你发现马有舔嘴唇做咀嚼的动作或抬起一条后腿、大叹一口气、低下头,这证明马很放松。用扔牵引绳的手拍拍他进行脱敏训练的部位,意为工作结束,做的非常好。如果马一直没有表现出放松,但在进行训练时一直保持站立不动且时长超过15秒钟,这证明马对牵引绳已经不再恐惧,这时就可以拍拍马,告诉他训练结束。
Retreat. When your horse relaxes, he'll show one of four signs: licking his lips; cocking a hind leg; taking a deep breath; or lowering his head and neck.
When your horse keeps his feet still and shows a sign of relaxing, rub his withers and back with the hand that was throwing the rope as a sign of retreat.
If your horse doesn't show one of those five signs, but he stands still for at least fifteen seconds, he's telling you that he's no longer fearful and you can go ahead and retreat and rub him with the rope.

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6. 多扔一些牵引绳。当马习惯了两尺的牵引绳时,可以尝试扔3-4尺的牵引绳。
Throw more rope. When your horse is comfortable with two feet of the rope, start to throw three to four feet of rope over his back using the same procedure.

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7. 慢慢向马的后肢扔。 在完成前面的训练之后,可以开始向马的后肢和脖子扔牵引绳。从对马的背线(马肩隆、后背、后肢和脖子)的脱敏开始,因为这些部位是马身体最不敏感的部位。
Move to his hindquarters. Now start to throw the rope over your horse's hindquarters and then his neck using the Approach and Retreat Method.
Always start with your horse's topline (withers, back, hindquarters and neck), because they're the least sensitive areas on his body.

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8. 到腿部的脱敏。很多马不喜欢别人碰自己的腿,特别是年轻马,对于马腿的脱敏就显得格外重要。可在对马腿的脱敏时将牵引绳扔出后应等一下,等到绳子把马腿缠住后再将绳子收回。对马的后腿和前腿重复进行练习。时刻记住做脱敏时与马保持45°角。
Move to his legs. A lot of horses don't like their legs being touched, especially young horses. Desensitizing with the rope will prepare your horse for leg handling.
To desensitize your horse's legs, lengthen the rope, and swing your arm forward. When your arm straightens, stop moving it, and let the rope wrap around his legs.
Do this to your horse's back and front legs using the Approach and Retreat Method. Note that to desensitize the front legs, you'll have to take a couple steps back, still staying at a 45-degree angle.

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9. 向马扔全部的牵引绳。很多马不喜欢那些朝自己快速移动的东西,向马扔的绳子越长马会变得越安静。这教会马不用大脑思考的一侧,对那些快速移动的东西不感到恐惧。在扔绳之前手稍稍向后一摆增加扔的动力,向前抛去时绳子应全部脱手,加快绳子运动速度能更锻炼马匹。
Throw the entire lead rope. Lots of horses don't like things moving toward them quickly. The more you can throw things at your horse that are never going to hurt him, the quieter he'll get. This teaches him not to use the reactive side of his brain and not to get scared when something happens quickly.
Pitch the entire lead rope over the horse's withers and back. Start by getting the rope out behind you, and when you throw it, let it fly all the way out of your hand. would give your horse the opportunity to turn and run, or kick you.

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10. 在两侧重复训练。在前期的文章中小编曾经提到过,驯马就要把马当成两匹马来驯。因为马的左右脑分开工作,它懂得了怎样做右边的动作但并不能自己理解左边也是这样的。在做训练的时候就要两个方向都做,而且总有一个方向要弱于另一个方向。
Repeat on both sides. Repeat these steps on both sides of your horse's body. Horses have two sides to their brains, the left and the right. Act like you're training two separate horses. Make sure you're very thorough with each side, and don't be surprised if one side is spookier than the other.

来源:微信公众号马语狗说/李晏萍
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